Yes. The government has powerful tools to use against borrowers who don't make student loan payments. This is one of many ways.
The IRS can intercept any income tax refund you may be entitled to until your student loans are paid in full. This is one of the most popular methods of collecting on defaulted loans, and the Department of Education annually collects hundreds of millions of dollars this way. In some cases, you can challenge a tax refund offset. You can learn how at www.studentloanborrowerassistance.org.